The issue of national heritage is an inseparable element of the existence of every nation. The article presents the legal regulations aimed at the protection of cultural heritage in Poland, as well as statistical data relating to crime in this area. The solutions adopted by the Polish police in the field of the identifying and combating of crime against cultural property and national heritage are also described. Furthermore, the article highlights the most serious crime against the national heritage that has occurred in Poland in recent years. The subject article was prepared on the basis of the analysis of literature, existing legislation and two interviews with Polish police officers.