Security, employment opportunities, just reward, basic social incomes and social services for all, these were attributes of the modern social state, which emerged after the Second World War. This phenomenon did not concern only the Czechoslovak Republic, but almost the whole Europe. However, its theories were already conceived and worked out in detail during the war. The model of the social state came from Great Britain, which the government of the post-war Czechoslovak Republic reflected. The Košice Government Programme agreed between the Slovak and Czech sides, already promised a generous social policy and social care for all groups of working people. The new concept of social policy was based on universalism and a system of full employment secured by nationalization, state regulation of the market and state organization of labour. Employment and social security policy were among its most important priorities. The study is concerned with employment policy. In its framework, the author devotes attention to the problems of management of labour, inclusion of women in employment, protection and security for workers, the wage system and standard of living of the workers.