The autor discusses three main ways of thinking about Romani identity: the ethnic¬-cultural approach that dominated the older literature, the social perspective that openly criticized romological tradition, and the political vision held by Romani activists, according to whom Roma form a nation (understood in several different ways), defined by a reference to the past and an anticipation of the future. The author argues for a “conciliatory” conception of Romani identity, according to which the latter is a complex network of cultural, social, and political elements. This concep¬tion has been illustrated by the views of Romani mid-rank activists, a very important category that mediates the transfer of ideas from Romani elites to the grassroots. The interviews conducted in the 1990’s have provided not only an interesting insight into the evolution of the consciousness of various Romani communities, but also reve¬aled the emerging new approach to Romani identity. This new approach corresponds with the views of the newer generation of Romani intellectuals who are fascinated by the postmodern idea of identity as a refusal of an unequivocal and long-lasting self-identification.