NIKOLAJ KAVÁSILAS A KRÍZA BYZANTSKEJ SPOLOČNOSTI V 14. STOROČÍ
Nicholas Kabasilas and the crisis of Byzantine society in the 14th century
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The aim of the article is to present the life and work of Nicholas Kabasilas, one of the forefront figures of the fourteenth-century Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Not much information has survived on the life of Nicholas Kabasilas, despite the fact that he was an advisor to the Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos from 1347 to 1354 and significantly influenced the development during his era which was shaken by two very crucial events: Hesychast controversy and the fight for the throne after the death of Andronikos III between Alexios Apokaukos and John VI Kantakouzenos. Misunderstandings and conflicts between Hesychasts and Anti-Hesychasts lay in different starting points and are related to the issue of the humanistic and patristic revival in Byzantium. Greek monk Barlaam of Calabria got into conflict with traditional Byzantine views and he ruled out the possibility of real communion with God, therefore he opposed Hesychasts. The defence of Hesychasts was undertaken by Gregory Palamas, the paramount representative of Byzantine thought and the leading figure of Hesychasm who reacted to the gnosiological issue of God on the basis of distinction between unattainable Divine substance and attainable uncreated Divine energies. Kabasilas did not enter open conflict like Gregory Palamas, but he focused more on the clarification of anthropological questions. He also paid attention to the social issues and problems of common people in need who were fighting for social justice. He criticized usury and injustice of the rich, which led people to poverty and, in turn, violence.
89 - 98
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