MUḤAMMAD CALĪ’S CONQUEST OF SUDAN (1820 – 1824)
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This paper deals with two Turkish-Egyptian expeditions sent to Sudan by the Egyptian Viceroy Muḥammad cAlī Pasha at the turn of the third decade of the nineteenth century. The first one, commanded by his son Ismācīl Kāmil Pasha, conquered the declining kingdom of Sinnār in 1820 – 1821. The second one was led by his son-in-law, Muḥammad Bey Khusraw ad-Daftardār, and seized Kordofan (Arab. Kurdufān) in 1821. After the killing of Ismācīl Kāmil Pasha in Shandī, tribes inhabiting the Nile valley revolted in October 1822. Following the brutal suppression of the revolt, Sudan became an Egyptian colony. However, the main long-term goals of the expedition – to acquire large quantities of gold and build a modern army of Sudanese slaves – were not accomplished.
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