The article “From allegory to eschatology in Jan Karafiat’s Broučci: Pro male i velke děti” discusses the subject of the first authorial book for children from the second half of the 19th century, written by a Czech Evangelical pastor. In this literary piece of art we will find strong autobiographical influences and innovative literary trends, references to children’s way of perceiving the world on the psychological, linguistic and literary grounds. The article shows how the author managed to reflect the spiritual sphere of human life in an allegoric world of insects. The miniaturized world of fire flies is an allegoric tale on man’s way to God. Eschatology in Jan Karafiat’s book is understood as unconditional commitment to God in hope of eternal life. A theocentric character of this book is presented from the perspective of the Evangelical Reformed Church, promoting a harsh Calvinist notion of faith. The book, besides its theological implication, raises also transreligious values. For it is a literary Decalogue – a set of basic ethical principles, worth of every human being’s attention, regardless of the religion they practice, if any.