EVALUATION OF URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT MEASURES
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Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP) was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without a practical justification will produce counterproductive results.
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