Władza i panowanie w prahistorii a zagadnienie interdyscyplinarności studiów archeologicznych
POWER AND AUTHORITY IN PREHISTORY AND THE PROBLEM OF INTERDISCIPLINARY ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDIES
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Author considers interdisciplinary nature of archaeological studies. The most outstanding scholars in the early stages of the development of archaeology as a scientific and academic discipline were mainly highly educated men with broad interests, combining knowledge of various sciences. For this reason they did not notice the problem of cooperation of archaeology and other disciplines. However, the progress of specialization in various disciplines during the twentieth century, has now led to a situation where the cooperation of the archaeologist with other scientific disciplines requires theoretical reflection. Archaeological studies of about power and authority, as well as social issues in prehistory, are usually based on analyses of burial rites. This is because all rituals provide a flow of meaning in culture, using in this case essential material things. Ritual is a symbolic and expressive aspect of behaviour that communicates social relations. Its role is particularly important in crisis situations as a means to cope with uncertainty. From the very beginning of the Eneolithic period in particular areas of Europe and the Near East we are able to identify material manifestations of various forms of increasing social hierarchy which were accompanied by different forms of authority and wielding of power. It seems that these processes were carried out under the umbrella of various kinds of ethos: hero (Mesopotamia), warrior-priest (Brittany), knight (west coast of the Black Sea), or warrior-herdsman (the Caucasus outskirts).
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