Proportional electoral methods and their consequences
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Electoral method is mathematical mode of translating votes on mandates. Electoral method, together with constituencies and electoral thresholds is one of the element of proportional electoral system. In the surveys of proportional system majority of doctrine assume, that deciding influence on electoral outcomes has magnitude and structure of constituencies and amount of electoral thresholds, while electoral method comparing with aforementioned elements has usually minor meaning. Consequences of choosing electoral method can be however very crucial, sometimes becoming even the most important factor deciding which political parties takes power after elections. This fact create tribute to contemplations on mathematical apparatus and consequences of their applying. In doctrine are proposing different proportional methods. One of the best esteem expert of electoral systems Arend Lijphard, consider that proportional methods should be divided on simple transferable vote system, in which voter vote on individual candidates marking his preferences and party list system, which consist of divisor and quota method. In the article was presenting mathematical and political implication of using particular electoral methods. Author points out that contemporary divisor methods are using commonly than quota methods. It’s ensue mainly form it’s simplicity, endurance on antinomies and easiness in tinkering. Large part of consideration regarded to instrumentalization of electoral methods.
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