In this article the authors identify peripheral municipalities and peripheral areas in the South Bohemian region (county) and monitor their social-population instability. Poor accessibility to micro-regional cores by public transport was used as the criterion to define municipalities as peripheral. Peripheral areas. Seven state-border, six county-border and nine intra-county peripheral areas were delimited in the South Bohemian region. Consequently, the authors monitored the differences between peripheral areas and their types and between peripheral municipalities, semi-peripheral municipalities, suburban municipalities and micro-regional cores (towns) on the basis of dissimilar values of defined indicators of social-population instability. Such differences are also explained in terms of the concept of spatially conditioned social exclusion. The authors defi ned and used some basic socio-economic indicators in their research: index of population development between 1971 and 2009 and between 1990 and 2009; proportion of the population in the age groups 0–14 and 65+ in 2009; rate of registered unemployment in 2009; proportion of the population with the secondary school-leaving examination in 2001; number of flats built per 1000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2008. Social-population instability was found mainly in county-border peripheral areas and also in a number of state-border peripheral areas. The authors also examined regional social policies for peripheral municipalities and peripheral areas. In the article’s theoretical discussion, and to explain regional social policies for peripheral municipalities and areas, the authors draw on the concept of social exclusion and distinguish spatially unconditioned social exclusion and spatially conditioned social exclusion, which includes social exclusion that results from living in peripheral municipalities and areas.