The first part of the paper (Sections I. – III.) deals with the basic concepts, aims, conditions and sub-disciplines of cognitive literary science. The second part of the paper (Sections IV. –V.) discusses concepts of literature and literariness. It is literariness (Roman Jakobson) that is crucial for literature and constitutes literary studies as the scientific discipline. Theorizing quality of literariness requires empirical and experimental argumentation. That is why, contrary to the traditional reader-response theory, the cognitive reader-response theory focuses on the individual, active reader. Kuzmíková´s experimental metaphor study indicates that in solving/understanding literary metaphors there is a difference between rational and intuitive (experiential) personalities. As metaphor is the prominent tool of literariness, we can presuppose that more rational and more intuitive people differ also in general literary reception outcomes. The empirical examination of literary communication has an ambition to give more scientific and specific data for the literariness theory then non-empirical, speculative interpretations and models have provided.