Poland is one of the largest global producers and particularly exporters of apples. The export is of great importance to domestic producers of these fruits. The objective of the article was to assess Poland’s competitiveness in world trade in apples in the years 2003–2013. In connection with that, in an innovative way ten mutually complementary indices of ex-post competitiveness have been calculated for Poland and analysed. The study presents ranges in which the values of particular indices of competitiveness may be comprised. It also explains the impact which re-export may have on the levels of some of these indices, making it difficult for their correct interpretation. The studies have demonstrated that in the analysed period, Poland was characterised by high and growing competitiveness in foreign trade in apples, particularly in the years 2012–2013.