Cognitive-behavioral therapy is one of the most prominent psychotherapeutic perspectives, which clinical efficacy has gained strong empirical validation, but at the same time it is considered as characterized by reductionistic view of humanity. Since the 1980’a development of the so-called R/S CBT, or religiously/spiritually sensitive cognitive-behavioral therapy, can be observed. The article presents the R/S CBT in its most important aspects; the issue of its effectiveness in the treatment of mental disorders and existential crises is also considered. Including religious/spiritual issues in the process of psychotherapy may raise ethical questions. The decision to include religious content in the process of psychotherapy puts high demands on psychotherapists’ professional ethics, not only in terms of compliance with the ethical and professional standards, but with regard to the development of personal competences or professional virtues.