The article presents the views of Zygmunt Bugajski on the issue of physical education in prisons of the Second Polish Republic. Bugajski was one of the main representatives of the Polish penitentiary thought in the years 1918–1939. Many of his thoughts were accomplished. Physical education was also brought to prisons. The article presents his thoughts on physical exercises, but also (as far as the sources allowed) their practical applications in prisons of interwar Poland. Increased interest in physical education as a form of social rehabilitation ended in the early 1930s. Bugajski played an important role in this, being not only responsible for introducing legal functions, but also covering the theoretical foundations presented in his work: “Education and physical education in prisons” published in 1929. Bugajski was murdered by NKVD in the spring of 1940 in Katyn.