Integration of Agricultural Production in Polish Constitutional System
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The essence of the agricultural law is related to agricultural activities and is regulated in private law; whereas public law specifies the aims and conditions of performing these activities. The Stat is obliged to establish law supporting family farms in economic, social and financial aspects; and to introduce legal regulations protecting the interests of the owners of such farms. The principle of the family farm should be a sign-post and reference for all state authorities in their implementation of any tasks, duties and obligations . The acceptance of the normative value of Article 23 of the Constitution leads to the reconstruction of a norm ordering: 1) to recognize that the family farm is the dominant type of subjects carrying out agricultural production; 2) to prefer the dominant position of the family farm by different legal regulations, in particular tax and succession law. Polish doctrine of agricultural law has not solved the problem, whether Article 23 of the Constitution of 1997 has a juridical function of the agricultural sphere, and its formulations are guidelines for normal legislature and are binding directly for all citizens, authorities and institutions; or the regulation is a general clause, enabling free interpretation by law makers and law executors, even closer to an ideological manifest than to a strictly legal text . The lack of regulation concerning the status of a farmer as an entrepreneur is explained with historical events, the present regulations based on industrial law of 1927 and treating of farming activity not as earning for profit but only for the satisfaction of the needs of a family; on the other hand, the lack of such regulations is the result of uniform agricultural policy and development vision of agriculture.
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