. The destructive impact of natural disasters (and other random events that are usually difficult to predict) is increasingly being felt in all areas of the functioning of modern states. The governments of those countries (often in cooperation with local authorities) take various measures to prevent such events and to minimise their consequences, including helping victims of their occurrence. One way to achieve some of the above intentions – although certainly not of fundamental importance – is the use of tax law instruments, in particular tax preferences. This study is an attempt to analyse and assess these provisions of tax law that allow victims of natural disasters to benefit from preferential tax rules. The study discusses the tax instruments used to help victims of natural disasters used by tax authorities. The analysis shows that the system of tax instruments protecting victims of natural disasters is largely based on discretionary solutions, used only as a result of an appropriate procedure followed by a formal decision of an authorised body (legal act or decision). In light of the studies carried out, it can be concluded in general that the system of tax instruments to protect persons affected by natural disasters requires certain measures to improve its effectiveness. Certain requests in this regard, addressed to the legislature, were generally indicated in the study. The article also presents some specific issues related to the interpretation of of the regulations under consideration, including some editorial and terminology doubts.