In the article, responsibility is treated as a basic category of education and a special individual and social value. Attention is paid to the nature of learning responsibility by a pre-school child. The aim of the article is to identify individual and social determinants of constructing a category of responsibility by a child. Their expressions visible in language, emotions and behavior are treated as carriers of the meanings of specific content. They point to certain situations in the child's life that are conducive to learning responsibility. This makes it easier to recognize what is a responsibility from the child’s point of view and how children experience responsibility in everyday life. The basis for the analyzes are the theoretical references concerning the sources of responsibility, while the direction and scope is determined by the analysis of the content of the category of responsibility.