Fundamentalism is a general term denoting religious movements which consider religious traditions to be of the highest importance and are reluctant to introduce any changes which are seen as an infringement of religious identity. Fundamentalism is a characteristic of all religions in the world, however, in the case of Islam — in the recent years — it has often been the cause of terrorist acts. The dogmata of Islam are defined in the Quran, according to which there are five pillars of Islam to which every Muslim has to adhere. The characteristic feature of Islamic fundamentalism is to introduce specific ways of life based on traditional standards described in the Quran, they define social and political aspects of life as well as detachment from the Western way of life. The cause of this is frustration and social dissatisfaction along with a rejection of modern methods and changes proposed by the West. Preaching slogans which encourage fighting against injustice and demoralisation in the name of creating “a better world”, along with a proprietary right to interpret the verses of the Quran, results in the promotion of terrorism, including suicide attacks. The cult of sacrificing one’s own life is treated in Islam as a heroic deed, in which the doer sacrifices what he deems most important. Martyrdom, glory after death, the sense of self-sacrifice for the sake of a divine cause are factors which make Islamic terrorists accept their own demise and this is not considered as the end of their existence but rather its beginning and privileged because of the sacrifice of one’s life for Islam. The foundation of Islamic terrorism is the rivalry between the values of the West and the fundamentalist and traditionalist tendencies of the Arabic countries. Anti-West attitudes together with a politicised version of Islam are major threats not only to both sides but also the whole world.