The second decade of the 21st century is a period of ones of the greatest threats to the contemporary civilization. After the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center we are in the state of the permanent threat and the state of the war on terror. A migration of the population from the states of the Middle East and north Africa is one of the greatest contemporary threats particularly to the European countries. The article describes contemporary threats from the migration of the Muslim population through terrorist attacks, until the drug trafficking. The threats that constitute simultaneously the biggest global challenge for the security system of Europe were also presented. Moreover, the security system of the Republic of Poland drawn up in 2014 in the Safety Strategy of the Republic of Poland whose task is to regulate the system organization as well as to deal with the contemporary challenges and threats was described.