Outsiders at the school desk? Developmental dyslexia - diagnosis and reality Developmental dyslexia is as old as the ability of writing itself. No doubt, this very specific difficulty in learning is not new. But recently it is so common (especially in school learning) that it has become a real „school plague”. True, for most teachers, parents and pupils this problem is quite new. However, the early research on difficulties in reading and writing started at the end of the 19th century. The content of this article is the following: (1) Introduction to developmental dyslexia – overview: definition, terminology, types, forms, symptoms; (2) Diagnosing specific difficulties in learning – diagnosis process, different aspects, interbranch methods; (3) Overcoming most common educational weaknesses, through: changing general attitude to developmental dyslexia, identifying people with specific difficulties in learning, looking for ways of living and dealing with dyslexia, designing interbranch methods and tools of diagnosing, implementing adequate programmes in teachers’ training, and developing perspectives for people with dyslexia in the national educational system.