The aim of the article is to present the phenomenon of bioterrorism and related threats in a global and national (Polish) perspective. Experiences with using biological weapons, international conventions and disarmament processes induced the prohibition of this kind of weapons in majority of countries. However, low production costs, facility of transfer and large range of biological weapons may be appealing to potential terrorists and extremist groups. The author analyses contemporary threats and problems connected with possibility of using biological weapons by unauthorized persons. He discusses the historical overview of biological agents, the response system for the threats they cause, Polish and global legal regulations, as well as selected cases of attacks. It leads to the conclusion that continuous improvement of laws concerning biological agents is needed, as well as the preparation of military and civil structures for a potential attack and related crisis and military operations.