In recent decades, the remarkable cultural heritage of Egypt has been threatened by loss or damage due to many conflict situations. These have led to looting, smuggling, vandalism, encroachment, illegal activities, and many more threats which put the fate of Egypt’s heritage in jeopardy of disappearance and demolition. The loss of Egyptian heritage is not only a loss of history, but of cultural identity, memory and existence. These types of threats are by no means a recent phenomenon, but have been going on for centuries. This paper presents a research into the history of Egyptian heritage in times of conflict especially in the 19th and 20th centuries. Furthermore, it also examines the severe crisis that endangered Egyptian heritage in the 21st century, notably the aftermath of the 2011 Revolution and the subsequent, widespread pillaging of archeological sites and museums. These recent conflicts highlighted concerns about the future of Egyptian antiquities and their protection, and raised serious concerns about how to protect Egyptian patrimony and preserve the collective cultural memory of Egypt. A comprehensive, comparative analysis of Egyptian and international legislation pertraining to cultural heritage protection has been conducted in order to examine its efficiency in protecting Egypt’s cultural heritage.