Every year a very large number of children in the world suffer from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and for years there has been a steady increase in the number of new cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia accounts for 75% of leukemia cases in the world. Lymphoblastic leukemia is a cancer disease that originates in B or T cell lymphocytes, which expansion takes place in blood and in the bone marrow. The etiology of the disease is not fully understood because it consists of several factors conditioning its formation. The most important element is the early detection and taking actions resulting in effective disease control through treatment and care of the patient. The nursing process should allow the patient to be involved in and accept the ongoing cancer process, and medical personnel, family and specialists in such fields as psychology and psychiatry should participate.