Public administration in Poland has taken the form of a system of entities with different tasks and objectives, as well as different competences. It is a part of the classical model based on the functioning of two separate components, such as the state administration, including the government and local self-government. From the perspective of a democratic state governed by the rule of law, the existence of local self-government is extremely important, and even becomes a necessity. Therefore, the deliberations addressed in the paper focus on the functioning of this form of public administration at the lowest level of basic division of the state, which is the commune. The presented research is an attempt to indicate the legal status and position of commune self-government not only in the broadly understood local self-government but also in the whole public administration system.