During the late 19th century and early 20th century, co-education on a secondary school level was still a source of controversy, resulting in a public discussion. The first co-educational secondary schools in the Polish territories were established over the course of the First World War. During that time, in light of a realistic chance for Poland to regain independence, the teaching community undertook discussions regarding the shape of education in independent Poland. Still, many people still viewed co-education with a degree of doubt. In the interwar period, however, the number of public and private co-educational secondary schools increased. They were located primarily in smaller cities. Additionally, men usually represented the majority of students. This dynamic was a result of allowing women to attend institutions that had originally functioned as all-male schools, thus creating a coeducational schooling system. The level of education in these institutions was generally low.