In 1918, Poland’s education authorities began to build a uniform school system. Improving secondary education and organising teacher education were important tasks. In the 1870s education in Galicia was Polonised (including universities in Cracow and Lviv), and a system of secondary school teacher education was established. Candidates were educated at university philosophical faculties. Qualifications were obtained after passing state examinations in content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. University studies in the Second Polish Republic were organised according to the principles of “free study”, which educated researchers. A vast majority of students undertook studies to prepare for the teaching profession. The article deals with the adjustment of ministerial regulations and studies at the Faculty of Philosophy (later Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences) at the University of Warsaw to the needs of vocational education of teachers. Since 1926, future researchers and future teachers were subject to the Master’s degree regulations. The choice of career in teaching or in academia began only after obtaining a Master’s degree. Additionally, teachers needed to acquire theoretical and practical pedagogical qualifications: during a one-year or two-year pedagogical program organised by Bogdan Nawroczyński at the Faculty of Humanities. This period saw the development of pedagogical research and an increased interest in pedagogy.