Preparation for learning to read and write in the first grade of elementary school is an important factor that co-determines success both in learning and in the future adult life of every human being. In one of her former studies (Olechowska 2005), the Author of the article showed that children who started learning to read and write when their phonematic hearing was not fully developed had poor results in acquiring these skills and – what is more – their results got worse over time in the early years of elementary school as compared to their peers without such difficulties. The conclusions from her former studies not only confirmed the findings of research conducted worldwide (Matthew Effects, Stanovich 1986), but they also justified the need for further research whose findings could help better prepare children for learning to read and write in school. In this article, the Author ponders over selected factors that can contribute to children’s difficulties in learning to read and write in school based on analyzing her observations of activities for five-year-old children in selected preschools. Based on this analysis, she divides exercises done by children in terms of the (specific and nonspecific) components of readiness for learning to read and write that were distinguished by G. Krasowicz-Kupis. She also points to possible sources of children’s future difficulties in reading and writing that lie in a significant imbalance in language exercises in terms of the individual components and in some other factors noticed during her observations. Research tasks and analysis of the material in the light of contemporary knowledge were to help to better identify possible areas of critical importance for preparing final year preschoolers for reading and writing. The conclusions formulated made it possible to point to the need for taking specific preventive actions within the scope of the problem under study.