“Gender troubled” – from the production and reproduction of masculinity to the forms of overcrossing gender: Homosexual as a traitor? Producing of “masculinity” in the Western European culture
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“Masculinity” in the Western European culture is entrenched by many principles. These rules demand that a man must “not be too female” because this threatens the “hegemonic masculinity” which has many privileges in the society. Men who do not respect these cultural recommendations can be called traitors of the “hegemonic masculinity”. It may be observed on the example of homosexuals who realize a non-normative subjective strategy and therefore can be cast out of the “male group” which was described by Raewyn Connell in the book Gender and Power to which I will refer in this article. The aim of this work is to verify this thesis and to scrutinize the way of constructing “masculinity” in the Western European culture, especially in its global and local spins. I want to focus on the consequences for homosexuals and their subsisting in the society from the philosophical perspective by the analysis of the concepts and standpoints of chosen researchers (Simone de Beauvoir, Judith Butler, Raewyn Connell, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Anthony Giddens and Bartosz Lis).
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