The theoretical Basis for Criminological forecasting of Crime (with Russia Example)
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The paper discusses the problems of criminological forecasting of crime. The analyses have been based on issues concerning theoretical foundations and assumptions of this process in Russia. Since it is a country with considerable socio-demographic, religious and cultural diversity, it must analyse, assess and monitor these territorial differences in crime and skilfully anticipate the changes taking place there. Russia is the country that already has experience in predicting the development of crime. Current Russian criminological literature has been used in the deliberations. The publication presents various definitions of criminological crime forecasting. Attention was drawn not only to the need to anticipate changes in criminal trends but also to the evolution of crime causes. The sources of information necessary to forecast this phenomenon have also been indicated. It has been emphasized that this is, in particular, knowledge about socio-economic and political transformations taking place in the country. The several stages and complexity of the forecasting process, as well as its result in the form of a crime forecast, have also been underlined. By presenting a number of forecasting objectives, its usefulness for the protection of the security of the state and its citizens have been emphasized. The basics of conducting research analyses in the form of three scientific methods (extrapolation, modelling, and application of criminological expertise) have been discussed, as well. The classifications of forecasting and the periods applied in practice have been presented. The above issues have been discussed on the basis of theoretical assumptions adopted by Russian criminologists. Attention has been focused on the most important issues for preventing and combatting crime. The considerations have confirmed the need to anticipate the development of crime.
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