Animal remains from the el-Hamra Christian complex in the el-Ga'ab Depression, West Dongola (Sudan)
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The animal remains discussed in this paper come from three archaeological sites in the el Hamra Christian complex excavated within the frame of the el Ga'ab Depression archaeological, ethnographical and ecological project. During two seasons in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, a team directed by Yahia Fadl Tahir collected and examined a total of 89 mammals, 5 ostrich egg and 16 Mollusca remains. The bone assemblage was divided into seven groups representing the most and least attractive parts of the carcass in terms of nutritional value. Identified species include sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus), while other animal remains include ostrich egg fragments, and mollusk species: Pila ovata, Melanoides tuberculata and Lanistes carinatus. Similarities can be observed in livestock husbandry and subsistence patterns in the early Christian period in the Dongola region, where the economy depended on smalls mammals like sheep and goats to provide milk and meat.
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