Conscientious objection and European vision of human rights
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The development of biomedical sciences and techniques, despite the undeniable positives, brings with it new threats, also for human rights and democratic society. The most serious concern is possibility of modification of the biological nature of human beings –which might entail limitations of human freedom. The modification of the human genome, brain and mind control, mechanization of human body, creating digital copies of human beings are now the most widely discussed threats , for human rights and the rule of law. Aside to the mentioned risks directly related to the development of biomedical technologies, the subject of much controversy is the relationships between the beneficiaries of progress in biomedicine (patients), and those who provide defined benefit plans (primarily physicians). The question is whether the physician is obliged to provide every medical service or may refuse to provide those which are opposed to his ethical judgements? The problem of the status of conscientious objection arises in above mentioned context. This paper presents the issue of conscientious objection from the perspective of the Council of Europe regulations.
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