GLOBALIZATION OF SPACECRAFT INDUSTRY: TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS
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The economic role of the spacecraft industry can be adequately judged only when it is regarded as a value added chain. A considerable segment of this chain is related with services, which value may exceed tenfold the value of space techniques. The current developments in the spacecraft industry were predetermined by the series of changes at the end of XX century, such as slowing down of the economic growth with budgetary pressures on relevant R&D, the increasing influence of globalization with the growing competitive pressure at relevant markets, liberalization leading to deregulation of spacecraft services and privatization, technological advancements etc. New political and economic conditions refocused resources of the spacecraft industry on commercial objectives. Commercial segments in the spacecraft industry, which have proved their commercial capacity and are expected to grow, are satellite communication, remote probing and geographic information systems. Other ideas concern spacecraft advertising, orbital platforms for electric energy transmission to the Earth and for use of microwave technology for energy transmission. High technology level and complexity of new products/services offered by the spacecraft industry evolve demand for specialized services (engineering, business consulting, technical supply, financial and legal services, insurance, printing & publishing) allowing new companies to have a segment at the spacecraft market. Also, the spacecraft industry can bring by-side benefits, such as technology transfer.
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