'NO ONE IN THE STATE MAY REMAIN BEYOND CONTROL'. REMARKS ON CORRUPTION IN ATHENS FROM THE FIFTH TO FOURTH CENTURY B.C.
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According to the provisions of the Athenian law, persons fulfiling public funtions were bound (with the clerk's oaths, or an imprecation proclaimed by a herald before the opening of a session of the People's Assembly) and obliged under the threat of a legal action (eisangelia, euthyna, apophasis, aprographe, graphe klopes, graphe doron, graphe dekasmou) to act honestly in a manner excluding the possibility of receiving personal gains accepting the bribes or embezzlement of founds belonging to the citizen community. As corroborated by an analysis of accusations found in comedies and speeches, to charge a politician with corruption meant to deny him the right to engage in affairs of the state. The emergence of the term 'dorodokia' is closely connected with the birth of the 'polis' and the shaping of the norms of political life. According to the author of the article, a characteristic feature of the 'polis' is the overall rule of control over the public functionaries, as corroborated by the 'epicheirotonia' in the democratic Athens and the exchange of oaths between the kings and the ephors in the oligarchic Sparta.
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