NITRA I-CERMAN AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE GRAVETTIAN SETTLEMENT STRUCTURE IN SLOVAKIA (Nitra I-Cerman v ramci struktury osidlenia gravettienskej kultury na Slovensku)
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Barta's excavations in the years 1959-1968 revealed multiple settlements at Nitra I-Cerman functioning during the Upper Gravettian. The finds were dated to the shouldered point horizon on the basis of typological structure of artefacts, their stratigraphic position in loess profiles as well as their dates: 14C - GRN-2449 = 22 860 ± 400 BP - a layer with archaeological finds on the base of upper loess; 14C - GRN-2456 = 24 220 ± 640 BP - humic horizon attributed to the 'Cerman oscillation'. The oldest settlement comes from the end of the formation of humic horizon, the next one is connected with its surface and two phases were situated in the lower part of the upper loess. Chipped artefacts and bones of reindeer, horse and mammoth were concentrated mostly around the hearths. Chipped stone industry is represented by assemblages with mostly burins, backed tools, among them shouldered points, microliths and retouched blades. End-scrapers, retouched truncations, perforators, truncated flakes, denticulated and notched tools are less numerous. Dominant raw materials are radiolarite (63.8%) limnosilicite (21.5%) and erratic flint (5.1%). Besides the sites of the shouldered point horizon in the Vah basin, Nitra I-Cerman is a significant settlement unit in the Nitra river basin. The connection of these two regions through the Jastrabske sedlo was the route of hunter groups looking for radiolarite sources in the vicinity of the Vlarsky priesmyk and farther for erratic flint in Silesia.
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