2011 | 59 | 1 | 87-147
Article title

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE AENEOLITHIC HOUSE FROM CHYNORANY (Rekonstrukcia eneolitickeho domu z Chynorian)

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Remarkable variability, frequently also in the regions of the same culture (or cultural complex), manifested in the building construction and technology, is one of the evidences of relatively intensive mutual cultural influences. Similar situation can be defined for the Lengyel culture spread also within the northern part of the Carpathian Basin. Apart from general cultural spectrum of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic Period at the mentioned territory, this study is focused particularly on the Lengyel culture in which the innovations in house architecture and related new technological solutions and building techniques occurred. These reflected also the influences from immediate neighbourhood of the Carpathian Basin. In the building technology the main innovation is the construction of a ceiling (attic space) to which a series of technological changes is related adapted probably from the Vinca culture. The most similar to the burnt house no. 2 from Chynorany is a burnt house no. 10/80 from Budmerice, epilengyel-Lengyel IV, and burnt compact clay daub block from the same site (structure 2, area I), all in in situ position. On the basis of analyses of finding context and of its confrontation with measurements of clay daub fragments' burning intensity can feature 1 (burnt destruction of ceiling and perimeter walls of the house 2) be interpreted as one-storey house with ceiling with wooden construction and clay daub-plastered upper surface formed from split construction elements (here split planks). No post-holes were detected. Approximate shape or size of foundations can be reconstructed only on the basis of upper burnt clay daub destruction. At Chynorany, min. 5, max. 12 burnt houses were attested by geophysical prospecting of the area 60 x 60 m. Average size of the houses at Chynorany was 16.5 x 6.5 m. Detected burnt houses lied in relatively short mutual distances, seemingly forming irregular parallel streets with 3-5 m spacing between the houses.
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  • Mgr. Jozef Duris, PhD., Archeologicky ustav SAV, Akademicka 2, 949 21 Nitra, Slovak Republic
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