THE KULKUL DRUMS IN THE CULTURE OF BALI (Bebny szczelinowe 'kulkul' w kulturze balijskiej)
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The article discusses the usage of kulkul drums which have been used for centuries on the island of Bali. The history of these instruments is sparsely documented, yet both their presence in almost all the spheres of social life and in comparative material from neighbouring regions suggest that the use of the kalkul could have had a place before the Hindu influences. The contemporary instruments are of a type suspended vertically, beaten from the outside, and made of wood (Michelia champaka, Michelia alba, Artocarpus heterophyllus) or of bamboo. The details of construction and the sounds made depend on the function of a particular drum and on the context of its use. The inhabitants of Bali distinguish particular types of these instruments according to their locality, namely: kulkul pura, kulkul puri, kulkul banjar (desa, subak), kulkul seka, kulkul umah, kulkul kubu. Some of the motifs played on these instruments are known on the whole island: kulkul num pit (num pang), kulkul kelayu sekar, kulkul nganten (mati), kulkul ngayah (gotong-royong), kulkul bulus. The relationship between the instruments and the motifs performed have been compiled in the form of a scheme which was interpreted in the context of the contemporary culture of Bali with the reference to the symbols and ideas deeply rooted in religious ceremonies (a cosmic mountain, an opened gate) and the social customs (a dichotomy jero-jaba).
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