Education acts as a very important link between Poland, the country of residence of Poles and the so-called Polish Diaspora. It has often been the only opportunity to highlight the individual Polish character in an ethnically and culturally different world. The title includes four elements which the author attempts to consider - two dynamic (status and conditions) - subject to constant change - and two, seemingly unchanging or changing only in the long term - preserving national and cultural identity. This issue is discussed using the example of some European Union countries, some non-EU countries neighbouring the III Republic of Poland, as well as the United States and Canada. The author points out the relationship between the condition of Polish Diaspora education and political and economic factors in these countries as well as the policy pursued by the III Republic of Poland. There are some regularities in this aspect, depending on the area of residence of Poles. The author also points out the relationship between the situation of Polish Diaspora education and the conditions of its existence. This implies preservation of national identity and culture, variously conceived and formulated by Poles in exile and the Polish Diaspora, who increasingly drop the first part - national identity and emphasize - cultural identity. It becomes symptomatic - it is easy to lose cultural awareness without preservation of an overriding national awareness. Thus, what is the role of Polish Diaspora education? Is there a need to preserve national and cultural identity, particularly in the European Union? The author looks for answers, giving a brief on forms of education in different countries of residence of Poles and Polish Diaspora. He sees the goal of education not so much as promoting knowledge, but as preserving and handing down the universal values important for earlier generations, and relevant for some time. The unification that is so-called globalism adversely affects the status of national and cultural identity preservation. The more intensive the process of globalization, the less people's awareness of national identity and sense of belonging to a specific culture. In a globalized world, there is no room for national awareness and cultural identity. It may seem that a person who wants to keep these two elements, remains on the verge of global society.