This study explores the process of changes in pastoral structures in the Pilsener Diocese. It briefly outlines the pastoral situation and the plan for pastoral structure change in the diocese and compares them with the theological concepts of pastoral structure changes in the German-speaking countries. It operates with the Czech concept of the dying Church (Oto Madr). The author comes to the conclusion that 1. The current individual religiosity is not sufficiently accounted for; 2. It looks for the answers for the 'signs of the time'; 3. The changes can succeed if they are based on the understanding of the Church as a collective subject of pastoral activities.