THE MAIUMA FEAST AND ITS CRITICISM IN JULIAN'S MISOPOGON (Swieto Maiuma i jego krytyka w Misopogonie Juliana Apostaty Julian w Antiochii Syryjskiej)
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The author analyses Greek and Latin sources which are concerned with the Maiuma feast, however the Syriac ones are also briefly discussed. The article aims to show the main features of this event and to explain the reluctant attitude of Emperor Julian towards it. It seems rather improbable that the Maiuma can be identified with the 'ponera heorte' in Daphne described by Libanius (Or., L 11) or with other outwardly similar ones: the 'panegyris ton Bryton' celebrated in Constantinople, the feast in Edessa described by Joshua the Stylite or the theatrical event condemned by Severus of Antioch. Moreover the author argues that there is no premise for suspecting that the licentious Antiochean water show described by John Chrysostom is the same as the Maiuma. The second part of the article shows the Maiuma in the context of Julian's thoughts about 'heortai' and 'panegyreis'. Two reasons for the criticism are considered: the economic one, caused by the financial troubles of Antioch, and the ideological one, resulting from the emperor's morality and his devotion to sophrosyne, which was the main reason for the growing conflict between him and the Antiocheans (Misop., 345D, 346).
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