VPLYV PRVEJ ČESKOSLOVENSKEJ POZEMKOVEJ REFORMY NA NÁRODNOSTNÉ ZLOŽENIE OBCÍ JUŽNÉHO SLOVENSKA
Influence of the 1. Czechoslovak agrarian reform on the national structure of South Slovakia
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Colonies were result of inner colonization. Inner colonization in Czechoslovakia was one of actions of the Ist Czechoslovak agrarian reform in 1918 - 1938. The main reason of realization the agrarian reform was unequal distribution of land holdings. The major part of the earth belonged to small group of agriculturalists - land lords. Landlords who owned more than 54 ha of earth each, represented only 0,9 % of all agriculturalists. On the other side, a big group of 'small' agriculturalists (69,4 % ) kept less than 5,4 ha of land each. Unequal land holding was source of social pressure. In the period 1918-1920, Czechoslovak politicians adopted several laws that changed ownership of land. Character of agrarian reform was hint at law no. 215/1919 about overrun of big land possession. The state did overrun land from landlords who owned more than 150 ha of farm land or 250 ha of land in general. Overrun land was allotted to lacklands and small farmers. Overrun land in south Slovakia was set apart as area for inner colonization - colonization area. Inner colonization pursed two aims - political and social-economic. Political aim was to change strong concentration of Hungarian minority in the southern Slovakia. Social aim tended to allocate people on colonization area from regions with misery of agricultural land. Nationality of coming colonists was mostly Slovak or Czech. Until 1938, colonies Bottovo, Hviezdoslavov, Jesenske, Miloslavov, Mudronovo, Slavikovo and Srobarova were transformed to independent villages. Today we can allege that social purpose of inner colonization was fulfilled. Despite of many initial difficulties, the colonists were able to live in area of former colonies and villages Bottovo, Hviezdoslavov, Jesenske, Miloslavov, Mudronovo, Slavikovo and Srobarova did not loose their independence and did not perish. In all these villages the ethnic Slovaks dominate.
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