On the Assumptions of the Syntactical-Semantical Description of Natural Languages
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The article presents a list of assumptions, on which the concept of the syntax with the logical-semantical basics is grounded. In particular, it is stressed that the structure of syntax consists of two components. One component, which is higher in the hierarchy, constitutes a collection of concepts and a collection of the rules for their competitiveness; the second component, which is subordinate to the first one, consists of the collection of expressions/phrases and the rules for their competitiveness. The first component is of a general linguistic nature and the second component is of a specific linguistic nature. The logical-semantical assumptions of the syntax model are presented in detail on the basis of the Polish materials borrowed from the book entitled 'Podstawowe struktury skladniowe jezyka polskiego' (The Basic Syntactical Structures of the Polish Language). They constitute the basis for the project entitled 'Gramatyka konfrontatywna bulgarsko-polska' (The Confrontational Bulgarian-Polish Grammar) and for the international Slavic project entitled 'Skladnia porównawcza jezyków slowianskich drugiej polowy XX wieku' (The Comparative Syntax of the Slavic Languages of the Second Half of the XX Century) carried out at the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In accordance with the described syntax model, we have provided the descriptions of specific internal categories of proposal. The said descriptions constitute the semantical category of definiteness/indefiniteness and the semantical category of aspect which constitutes the categorical component of the above-mentioned The Confrontational Bulgarian-Polish Grammar.
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