NATIVE PEOPLE OF NORTH AMERICA (THE SO CALLED INDIANS): HISTORICAL OVERVIEW, ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL OUTLINE (Az eszak-amerikai bennszulottek (un. indianok): tortenti attekintes, etnopszichologiai vazlat)
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The first part presents, describes, analyzes, and interprets the main concepts related to the Indians. The importance of the conceptual clarifications is closely related to many misleading generalizations based upon biased data. A historical overview of North American people before Columbus' arrival, their ethnopsychological peculiarities are presented, followed by a description and analysis of the relationships between the indigenous people and Europeans. The majority of the first Americans had perished due to conflicts, wars, genocide, restrictions and discriminations imposed by the new inhabitants of the continent as well as by epidemics of infectious diseases. The latest decades have seen the beginning of Indian Renaissance. The second part of the paper describes the psychological peculiarities of Native Americans. An important issue is methodology of data collection, validity and reliability of the data. Discussions and comparisons of the data, stemming from various sources, serve as the basis for descriptions of Indian behaviour. The following categories of values, attitudes, and features had been identified: - cooperation, group harmony, modesty, limited rivalry; - moderation in behaviour, self-restraint, reservation, slow responses, patience; - attention, excellent observational abilities, perceptual peculiarities; - cautious behaviour, avoidance of eye contact, keeping social distance; - view of time as relative, orientation to the present; - preference of concrete rather than abstract concepts, pragmatism; - love of children, importance of the family, role of the relatives; - permissive rearing, peculiar discipline methods; - generosity, indifference to ownership and saving, limited role of private property; - respect for the elderly, veneration of age, harmonious age relations.
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