Od gotyckiego zamku do barokowej rezydencji. Dzieje budowlane zamku biskupów warmińskich w Lidzbarku Warmińskim w XVII i XVIII wieku
From a Gothic Castle to a Baroque Residence. History of the Construction of the Castle of the Bishops of Warmia in Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg) in the 17th and 18th Century
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The castle in Lidzbark Warmiński is undoubtedly one of the most precious architectural monuments in all former Prussia. The architectural, archaeological, and conservation works carried out on the premises in 2010-12 obliged scholars to revise their views on the castle’s history, not only in the Middle Ages, but also in the modern period, the latter actually being the least investigated until recently. The article presents the chronology of the extension and transformation of the castle into a Baroque residence from mid-17th to the late 18th century, with the first stage of the alteration covering mainly the castle’s interiors. In 1679-89, Cardinal Michał Radziejowski’s funding allowed for the alteration of the castle chapel, socalled Audience Hall, in the northern wing, as well as of the Great Refectory in the eastern wing. The works initiated by M. Radziejowski focused mainly on the interior décor, its only remaining elements to be found in the wooden music gallery in the chapel and two portals of Dębnica marble in the castle galleries. The actual extension of the castle occurred only under the rule of Cardinal Radziejowski’s successor, Bishop Stanisław Zbąski who raised a palace covering the eastern part of the southern belt of hardened ground called parcham (outer ward) in front of the Gothic castle. It is worth mentioning on the topic that as a result of the investigation the thesis that the palace was founded by Bishop Adam Wydżga and that supposedly the architect Isidoro Affaitati designed it was false. A subsequent extension of the residence was completed in 1727. This entailed a substantial enlargement of the palace on the ward, which was then given a broad façade with three avantcorpses known from later iconography. At that point also the southern bailey, previously dedicated to administration and services, was transformed, its yard becoming the palace’s cour d’honneur. A new architectural decoration was bestowed upon the castle borough wings flanking the courtyard. Works on the Lidzbark residence were continued by Bishop Adam Stanisław Grabowski who thoroughly altered the eastern castle borough wing and slightly extended the palace on the parcham (outer ward). A new décor was introduced to the residence interiors, both those in the Gothic castle and in the new palace. Particularly worth mentioning in this respect is the alteration of the castle chapel. The works carried out on the buildings contained within the residential complex can be attributed to the architects affiliated with Warsaw’s Royal Building Office. The last of the bishops to reside in the Lidzbark Castle, Ignacy Krasicki, did not introduce any major changes either to its spatial arrangement or its architecture. He contributed, however, to enriching the décor of the complex facilities. Worth pointing out to is the socalled winter apartment, decorated in 1790 and located among the first-floor rooms of the castle borough eastern wing. The apartment featured an extremely interesting set of antiquitizing paintings by the painter Michał Skuraszewski.
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