ФИЛОСОФСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ВОСПИТАТЕЛЬНОЙ МЕТОДИКИ АНТOНА СЕМЕНОВИЧА МАКАРЕНКО
Philosophical bases of Anton Semenovitch Makarenko’s educational methods
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In the paper the question about philosophical components of Anton Semenovitch Makarenko’s educational system is discussed, and it is aimed to emphasize a new methodological approach to education and pedagogy. The author suggests and shows that it is necessary to take into deliberation this topic, on account of child outlook it develops both on educational and pedagogical ground, as well, starting with personal behavior of educator, and interaction with other people, and finishing with moral needs of the personality. Thus, in author’s opinion it might be possible to create some scientific paradigm which could allow to take a look at moral and ethical education of children from positions of axiology that are related to goals of present paper and having a particular meaning for specialized scholars, philosophers and sociologists. Moreover, such topics draw attention of international community, as far as ethical crisis of present world presupposes that all who want to go out of narrow frameworks of pedagogy as science about children and have pedagogy as science about man and personality try hard to realize such project. Besides, axiological approach to education and pedagogical sciences allows thinking that latters must be “built up” on the basis of pluralism, because they imply a multidisciplinary and multilayer approach to the personality based on dialogue as core for creating new behavior, it means ethically oriented paths in education, taking into account the fact that only an ethical regulation of conflicts in collective can give the possibility of a really development of such personal qualities as altruism, diligence, generosity, that are needed in interpersonal relations, at work, at school and in every place where takes place any form of personal interaction. The author of the present paper is convicted that Anton Makarenko’s ideas can help modern specialized scholars, studying his pedagogical heritage by creation of such new look at Makarenko’s studies as axiological one. Moreover, scholars of other fields of research can use Makarenko’s ideas in seeking for solution to the problem of anthropological crisis of a modern society due to maladjustment and absence of concrete values, having a deep moral and psychological meaning for youth. The aim of the author is underscoring how discourse must become an important and inherent part in pedagogical sciences, and in such important fields, related to this: education and formation. Discourse ought to become a possibility in disclosing pedagogy, education and formation to outer world, because it is necessary that they have a direct contact with society and environment, as far as it is impossible to figure out pedagogy out of the society and vice versa, if taking into account their complementary character, which can have a positive influence both on pedagogy and society. Pedagogy cannot be content with researching theoretical way to solving eternal questions concerning it, science has to be a battlefield where practice must be a prerequisite and factor for further development of the science. From this point of view, it is interesting to use Makarenko’s, Dewey’s ideas in order to create a pedagogical pragmatism, which can go out and get free of outdated conceptions. This process has to go in favors of a pedagogy and education that have to be aimed at observing and studying formation of the child’s personality and his or her development into a fully rounded moral person, as far as this process must arise on the background of democratic principles, being ever background of pedagogy as a driving force of society.
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