The article analyzes educational and cultural connections of Vilno with educational establishments of Right-Bank Ukraine in the first quarter of the 19th century and includes the study of the external factors’ influence on the formation of town cultural environment in Ukrainian provinces within the Russian empire in the period when Lithuanian, Belorussian and Ukrainian territories of the former Rzeczpospolita (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) were the part of Vilno educational district. The article states that educational establishments controlled by Vilno University took the most important part in the processes of interaction and communication of towns’ population in that period. In this connection the article considers official transfers of teaching staff within Belorussian and Ukrainian territories. School teachers were mostly representatives of land-poor gentry and promoted both the expansion of school activity sphere and spiritual communication in towns and settlements of Right-Bank Ukraine provinces in general. The article also pays attention and stresses the movement of printed matter and certain cultural values from Vilno to the educational establishments of Right-Bank Ukraine. The article makes a conclusion that Polish culture dominated in towns’ cultural space.