The article examines the main approaches to the definition of «genius» and «gifted children». On the basis of the essence of these concepts the characteristic features of gifted children are analyzed, the main directions of work with gifted children in preschool are described. It is established that systematic work of the educator DOE with gifted children specializes in the use of various psycho-diagnostic techniques, methods, forms, which can be supplemented by questionnaires of the parents and observations of the teachers and psychologists with a child. In the present article the global problems of improving the quality of education in the advanced countries where much attention is paid to the development of talented individuals and this activity is a component of the state policy in the field of education are analyzed. Given the objective interest of the world community for creative, intellectual resource, you can predict strengthening this positive trend in the twenty-first century. The analysis of psychological and pedagogical studies can highlight different approaches to the interpretation of giftedness: a high level of mental and special abilities; as a system of person’s education that is a specific stimulator of creative activity; a high level of mental development, which is a consequence of the natural inclinations and favourable conditions of education; as individually unique combination of interactive and complementary abilities in functional system activity, providing a possible success in this activity; general competencies, which are the degree of intellectual and motivational development, etc. Genius child manifests and develops primarily in creative activity and is determined by the motivation of educational activity, character and individual characteristics. To find out the features of gifted children, their dissimilarity is possible to understand the creative potential of these children and the direction that it should develop and help not to get lost in the «grey mass» of students. The teacher should organize his work with these children from an early age, since the earlier you start the development of abilities and talents, the more chances to disclosure them. For successful work with gifted children the teacher should use the search system of gifted and talented children; the ability to identify children on the following parameters (characteristics of attention; especially of thinking; memory feature; peculiarities of temperament) and above all to demonstrate pedagogical skills in working with them. In the present article the main directions identify gifted children based on age differences. It is found that the majority of gifted children is committed to leadership in one or other joint activities. When it comes to creative play, these children often choose a role of adult and compete with other children. These are quite responsible and self-critical children who have themselves to a high standard and don’t like when they focus on, discuss their exclusivity. Gifted children are far ahead of their peers in moral development, actively striving for justice and truth, they also present an interest in spiritual values.