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2012 | 1(19) | 477-494
Article title

Przekształcenia ekonomiczne na Ukrainie Zachodniej w latach 1939–1941

Content
Title variants
EN
Economic transformations in Western Ukraine in the years 1939–1941
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
In September 1939, in accordance with secret agreements concluded with Germany, the Soviets occupied the territories of so-called Western Ukraine, meaning Poland’s eastern voivodeships. In November, those territories were annexed by the USSR. Soviet administrative structures were introduced there, and the process of implementing radical socio-economic transformations was launched. The process of changes began by profound ownership transformations, comprising nationalisation of industry, transport, telecommunications, banks. Transformations also affected agriculture. Latifunds, lands of convents and owned by high-ranking state officials, were confiscated. Lands were nationalised. The authorities started creating state farms and farming co-operatives. All land purchase/ sale transactions were forbidden. In December 1939, the ruble became the official currency. The Polish zloty was withdrawn from official circulation. The introduced changes set the foundations for a new economic system. The second aim of Soviet authorities was to industrialise Western Ukraine. In the plan for 1940, the development of the industrial potential of Lwów (Lviv) – a city that had until then been primarily an academic and cultural centre – was deemed a task of particular importance, for ideological reasons. Economic transformations triggered radical social changes, an element of shaping society to emulate the Soviet model. Implemented changes met with ambiguous reactions of different social groups. For example, the collectivisation of agriculture was opposed by peasants-owners of private farms. However, the process was supported by the rural poor, that hoped for a better life thanks to socialism. The authorities suppressed all types of resistance with ruthless administrative methods.
Keywords
Contributors
References
  • W.L. Warećkyj, Socjalistyczni peretworennia u zachidnych obłastiach URSR (w dowojennyj period), Kyjiw 1960, Torżestwo istorycznoji sprawedływosti. Zakonomirnist´ wozzjednannia zachidnoukrajinśkych zemel w jedynij Ukrajinśkij Radianśkij derżawi, Lwiw 1968, W.L. Warećkyj, Socjalistyczni peretworennia u zachidnych obłastiach URSR (w dowojennyj period M.A. Wyłcan, Sowietskaja deriewnia nakanunie Wielikoj Otieczestwiennoj wojny (1938– –1941 gg.), Moskwa 1970, E.A. Osokina, Za fasadom „stalinskogo izobilija”: Raspriedielenije i rynok w snabżenii nasielenija w gody industrializacyi 1927–1941, Moskwa 1997, G.L. Rubinsztejn, Razwitije wnutrienniej torgowli w SSSR, Moskwa 1964, G. Hryciuk, Polacy we Lwowie 1939–1944. Życie codzienne, Warszawa 2000, P. Tigrid, Ve stínu lípy, „Svědectví” 1971, č. 41 V. Pavlíček, Únor 1948, „Právník” 1968, č. 3, K. Kaplan, Úvahy o nevyhnutelnosti února, „Svědectví” 1978, č. 55, F. Peroutka, Byl Edvard Beneš vinen?, Praha 1993. P. Kosatík, Ferdinand Peroutka – pozdější život (1938–1978), Praha–Litomyšl 2000, A. Svoboda, A. Tučková, V. Svobodová, Jak to bylo v únoru, Praha 1949 ; J. Veselý, Kronika únorových dnů 1948, Praha 1958
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-01904c03-9a46-43b7-aa3c-7813fbe75e43
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