Architektura Grudziądza w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym
Die Baukunst in Graudenz in der Zwischenkriegzeit
The architecture of Grudziądz in the interwar period
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The article discusses the features of the modernist architecture of the interwar period. The greatest impact on its development was exerted by the avant-garde influence of people such as Walter Gropius, J.J.P. Oud, Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, groups such as Bauhaus and De Stijl, as well as international exhibitions and CIAM congresses (English: International Congresses of Modern Architecture). The avant-garde artistic trends based on the aforementioned concepts reached Poland and were promoted by artists associated in “Blok” and “Praesens” artistic groups. These trends were also present in Grudziądz. A significant event that took place in Grudziądz in the interwar period was the opening of the Pomeranian Exhibitions of Industry and Agriculture in 1925. Apart from presenting the economic potential of Pomerania, its purpose was the promotion of the Polish style of building construction in Pomerania and bringing an end to the German culture. Noteworthy were the pavilions which had the features of the modernist architecture and the elements of the architecture of the modernized classicism, popular in Poland. Of great importance for the development of the interwar architecture in Grudziądz was the fact that the city was not heavily damaged during the war. Hence, the previously built public utility buildings were well-preserved; as a result, there was no sudden need to construct such buildings anew. However, housing needs were the social problem. This is why the housing architecture was best developed in the city. Single tenement houses were built in the quarters designed for the tenement buildings. In the former Kuntersztyn estate, a modern villa quarter with gardens, in the city-garden type, was built next to single buildings; buildings in the so-called manor style and more cubic objects with flat roofs were introduced there. Another villa buildings according to the design of the outstanding architect Józef Handzelewicz, the director of the Pomeranian Ceramic Factory, were constructed at Tuszewska Droga. In Grudziądz the Society for the Workers’ Housing Estate constructed the “Municipal Garden and House Estate” named after Marshal Józef Piłsudski and five buildings with several small apartments in the style of modernist functionalism on Lotnicza Street, designed by Helena and Szymon Syrkus. The article discusses also several significant modernist objects: the J. W. von Goethe’s Co-Educational Secondary School for the German Minority, the Orphanage for Girls, the Parish House of the Holy Cross, and the Fire Fighters’ building.
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