Wacław Nałkowski is certainly an outstanding figure for Polish geography. In many publications he has also been classified as positivist, anti-metaphysician, evolutionist, anticleric and socialist. Perhaps these designations are not always right, since in his works one can also find the ideas that do not quite match the labels conferred. His broad interests, diligence, criticism in selecting arguments, and the ability to see the essence of complex phenomena of different nature (both natural and cultural), yielded several interesting reflections contained in numerous articles and books. It should be emphasized that among his written thoughts and observations there are also those that resisted rapid changes in culture and environment that occurred in the century after his death, and can also be repeated today. Among them surely are his geographic and educational concepts. However, Nałkowski’s interests extend far beyond geography. The article focuses on interpretation of Nałkowski’s statements concerning the issues associated with the development of civilization, evolution, nature, as well as philosophy and sociology of science.