The essay refers to the cities on the border of Hrodna and Kaunas, which were in Trakai Voivodeship at the end of the ﬁrst Republic of Poland. The main purpose of this study is to present prevention, causes, frequency, course and eﬀects of ﬁres of Lithuanian cities from the end of the 18th century. The citizens were obliged to take part in ﬁreﬁghting actions. Every farmer was obliged to possess a ladder, an axe, a bucket and a full water tank near his house. Moreover, objecting the rules caused hard punishments. The main source of the ﬁres was the breweries. Therefore, it was decided to build them outside the town.